2nd International Conference on Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture in the Tropic .
Conference which organized by Faculty of Agriculture, University of Hasanuddin, Makasar was held on 2nd September 2019 at Swiss-bell Hotel in Makasar.
For the Ministry of Agriculture, refered to the theme Developing and improving sustainable agricultural practices : An attempt of achieving food security and challenging climate change in the tropical countries.
The topics will present as follows:
• Achievement of Agricultural Ministry, 2014-2019;
• Overview of Sustainable Agriculture;
• Adaptation and Mitigation of Extream Climate Change;
• Challenging Agricultural Mechanization Development in Indonesia;
• Agriculture Toward Industrial Revolution 4.0.
Ministry of agriculture under eadership of Dr. Andi Amran Sulaiman with his vission ‘ Indonesia feed for the world 2045’ Number of achievement has been done by Ministry of Agriculture, During his leader during 2014 untill 2017 has success to decrease food shortage from 10.5 percent to 1.2 percent. This is treamendous efforts being done for rice self sufficient without any importing rice as well as corn. In the year of 1984 Indonesia has achieved rice self sufficient with population of less than 200 million people compare to 2019 with population more than 250 million people. Better economic growth performed during period 2013-2017 from the third rank to fifteenth rank and it decrease economic inflation due to instable food supply. In 2013 economic growth 1.26 percent compared to year of 2017 reached 11.71 percent.
Export value of agricultural product in average fantastically increases during 2014 untill 2019 around 28.3 percent with the total export Rp 1,957.8 Trillion. Eventhough, 2015 export value a little bit increase due to El Nino impact. While the achievement of total export value during 2009 untill 2013 was Rp 1,549.5 Trillion. Increasing investment of agriculture in the period 2014-2019 compared period 2009-2013 with total Rp 240.8 trillion from Rp 96.1 trillion equal 150.7 percent. Increasing invesment caused by simplification of some bureucracy regulation and combined with on-line service application for lisencing in central and local government.
Indonesia gross national product supported from agricultural income which has contributed Rp. 4.698,8 trillion during 2014-2019 compared to 2009-2013 was Rp 3.935,7 trillion which equally increased 19.4 percent. In 2019, Indonesia ranking in gross domestic product was achieved in the position 5 out of 224 countries with the value US 128.34 billion. The highest ranking is China with the echievement US 991.02 billion and the lowest US 26.03 billion.
Poverty in rural area in Indonesia mostly affected by some factors like economic income of farmers and the availability agricultural land area. Farmer exchange rate showed incresing 0.42 percent from 2014 until 2018 while agricultural exchange rate 5.45 percent. Farmer exchange score in Indonesia for both farmer exchange rate and agricultural exchange rate from 2014-2018.
Poverty trend of Indonesian population showed gradually decrease during 2013 until 2018 which achieved 14.32 to 13.2 percent in rural area. Poverty population show decresing from 17.74 million in 2013 to 15.81 million in 2018. Cattle farm program in Indonesia increased population of cattle during period 2009-2013 with average population 14.73 million head and period 2014-2018 in average 16.6 million head which equal to 12.7 percent. Ministry of Agriculture launched a mandatory of cow pregnant program during 2019. The program succeded increasing population 3.8 million head equal to cattle farming income Rp. 76 million.
We are already aware on global issue on sustainable development goals with 17 missions, Ministry of Agriculture involves in the supporting mission such as poverty, prosperity, safe environment and biodiversity. Ministry of agriculture has been supporting number scientists with their specific professional under Agency for Agricultural Research and Development contribute for agricultural practise in the frame of development of agricultural sustainable. There are 76 technology innovation to support the farmer with sustainable base in the big scale i.e
Improvement of resistance rice variety against pest and diseases. Improvement of rice variety against extream climate such as high water tide in rice fields, drough resistance in upland area, saline tolerance in tidal swamp area. Serial of rice varieties have been reliesed from the group of Inpari, Inpago and Inpara.
Local wisdom technology control brown plant hopper and other stem rot of rice with the same to improve plant growth is in place which called Jarwo Rice Planting Pattern. This technology is effective to control pest and disease of rice to support more light intensity between raws of rice. On-line service for planting date, this service provide information when the right time of planting any commodity particularly on food crops. The right schedule of planting, We can minimize the risk from pest attack, to optimize plant growth, the right time of harvesting in certain area, including recomendation of rice variety.
Utilization of microbes, fungal, bacterial and virus as common practices in food crops, estate crops, horticulture, ornamental plants for producing organic fertilizer, bio-decomposer, bio-control, growth promotor of plant rhizosphere, metabolite substance, bio-gas energy in group farmer society. Utilization of beneficial microbe give positive impact to assure our food safety product and able to fulfill standard of Codex Alimentarius Commission (CODEX).
Breeding program in food crop, horticulture, estate crop, animal husbandry and poultry was been initiated for increasing yield and having specific requirement of consumer. In the breeding oil palm inself with specific characteristic namely plant with broad spectrum Leaf canopy accepting light intensity, Dumpy growth, resistance against Ganoderma are in progress.
Mass production through tissue culture technology in breeding program is more efficient in time consumption, There are number of techniques have been developed in our Biogen Institute of AARD, Ministry of Agriculture such as embryo, callus, protoplast and organ. Our program to support the estate crop with high yield and healthy plant establishs called BUN 500 means producing Estate Crops Certified Seeds at least 500 million for the small holder farmers.
Tissue culture technology is effective and efficient to maintain genotype and phenotype on certain varieties particularly used in the ornamental plant for export commodity. Ministry of agriculture carries out further study to explore clone or variety of crops with high yield in the extream condition during drough season.
The quick response of biosecurity team against any incursion of invasive species into Indonesia performed by Agricultural Quarantine Agency contributed to protect the country from quarantine pests which will affect trade facilitation and any potential lost of biodiversity. Sustainable of estate crops stipulated in Law of 39 of 2014 concerning estate crops. Sustainable for estate crops as mandatory to be implemented. Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO) as one out of 137 regulated estate crops must be based upon sustainable. Primary objectives ISPO are as follows:
to ensure oil palm plantation company and oil palm growers have to comply with government rules and regulations,
to promote sustainable production practice as demanded in the global market,
to iImprove competitiveness of Indonesian palm oil within global market,
to support Indonesia’s Commitment to reduce Green House Gases (GHG),
to support Indonesia’s commitment to preserve biodiversity resources and friendly environment,
Lets me brief on certification of ISPO has targeting to protect endanger species, flora and fauna in plantation has to observe the present of endanger species. The company works on oil palm may recieve certificate of ISPO after passing desk evalution and having approval from panel meeting to guarantee their farm managements comply to any regulation related to number of minister decrees. Cultural practice of estate crops by farmers mostly close to the concervation area of forestry. This will take serius matters for preserving biodiversity.
Endanger species can not be maintained in the plantations, without special treatment and permit given by Ministry of Environment and Forestry. Parameter approaches of conservation for biodiversity and environment use high conservation value. Farmers have recieved ISPO certificate regularly report to secretariat of ISPO, compliance on the submission of monitoring data on existing biodiversity in the field may help issuing new certificate of ISPO when it expired.
The target of Agricultural Ministry refers to sustainable matters will extend to other estate crops and also produces more various organic estate crop products. As we aware in the Arctic, North poles and South poles rise extream temperature as the fact of increasing CO2 concentration and caused melting ice mass followed by rising sea level. We are not release at certain part Indonesia in the certain period rise of sea level caused floading in costal area such as Semarang and Jakarta. The famous Vinice city, Italy has under sea level severe from rise sea level caused damage the house.
In contrast, We are in the struggle to produce our food in the extream climate, particularly during long dry season most of farmer look for the fresh water for watering their plants for producing any agriculture products. Farmers ask support from the government for the life. Fresh water is being expensive price. Ministry Agriculture in collaboration Ministry of Public works and House Contraction are construct water reservoir, water storage resorvoir, water irrigation and water dam including normalization of irrigation. Without irrigation normalization in certain area may cause floading during rain season.
Mechanization of agriculture within the framework of agriculture development in Indonesia has a strategic role to increase productivity, works efficiency, diversified agriculture practice, quality and value added product. In the variuos landscape of agriculture established from upper land to low land area with the existing farmers have small area for cultural practise. Solution in the limited area, mechanization infrastructure should be taken place.
Main factor to determine agriculture mechanization application are as follows:
What types and purposes use of agricultural machinery; How the adapted level of agricultural technology in group of farmer; How the human capacity and availability human resources to use technology;
How land scape topography and supporting infrasture are needed;
The available of local institutions among group of farmers is very important. Ministry of agriculture support farm machinery as grant in amouth 317.598 unit dedicated during 2012-2017 and post harvesting machinery in total 41.816 unit. Group of farmes have to initiate their own capacity to manage all machineries including controlling, supervision, the machinery overwholes service; How the existing machinery workshops to maintain all agricultural machineries to be fit in the operation. Availability information on agricultural machinary able to educate the farmer utilize the machinery. On the other hand, technical application of agriculture machinery must be the right use of purpose namely for land clearing, land levelling, planting, weeding or crops maintenance, harvesting, post harvesting inclusing prosessing.
Utilization of agriculture machinery in Indonesia was various level from low level up to advance level. It depend upon how adapted technology in the farmer inself. The success implementation of agricultural machinery initiated through field training and accompanied with farmer extention officers.
Farm labors in Indonesia are mostly dominated with old generation farmers in the rural area while young generation farmers migrated to big city to look for other jobs as low level workers in the industrial companies. This is our challenging to return it back young generation as youth farmer to replace old generation. Ministry of agriculture has been supporting some agricultural machineries for different type of utilization in the field for youth farmers.
Robotic tehnology in agricultural machinery based on Information Technology Communication for millenial generation have been already in place. Home industry in rural area as part of down stream industry supported with modern mechinery also have been placed. Hopefully, in the next short period millenial generation will be back to their village and be happy working in agricultural sector with full automatic machineries.
Youth farmers in the rural area need more attention to change their life style in agricultural practices with different condition of their parents. Millenial generation 4.0. recognized to utilize Information Communication Technology (ICT) with website base, tweeter, whattapps, facebook, android power system and other system application can support millenial generation 4.0 contribute in agriculture.
Youth generations are being creative using any software for agricultural business.
Comprehensive agriculture works in the agriculture area with specific commodity called kawasan pertanian, this development of agricultural area stipulated with Agricultural Minister Decree No. 18 of 2018 with guideline for development of agricultural area based on farm corporation. Youth farmers should have their own capacity to manage their business from fram to table. Detail capacity should have millenial generation such as agriculture input sub system, on farm subsystem, off farm sub system, and marketing subsystem. All of these susbsystem supported with ICT.
Number of agricultural mechanization technology offered by Ministry of Agriculture to youth farmers for horticulture crops, rice cultivation, maize cultivation, Soybean cultivation and sugarcane cultivation. Application of agricultural mechanization gradually increase since 2015 untill 2018. In 2018 mechanization agriculture applied in the land area reached around 6.25 million hectar and unit of machinery to cover that land in total 415.051 units.
The concept of full combined application ICT with the agricultural mechanization was in the process for producing food supply in soon will be in place of rural area. Prototype of robotic mechanization on plant watering using fertigation system which control panel using computer system and the farmers can manage their land from long distanse with efficient man power. As my conclusion from presentation, agriculture practice from farm to table is important system for food security and need to encourage all people including youth generation as millenial generation 4.0.